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15/08/2019

“Affordable” Utility Service: What is Regulation’s Role? Utilizing the nation’s economy stressed, politicians are pressuring regulators to make utility service “affordable.” This picture has three problems. Wealth Redistribution is certainly not Regulation’s Department The regulator identifies prudent costs, computes a revenue requirement to cover those costs, then designs rates to produce the revenue requirement under embedded cost ratemaking. Rate design makes each customer category bear the costs it causes. None among these cost that is steps—prudent, revenue requirement computation, cost allocation—involves affordability. Affordability becomes a factor only if we jigger the numbers—if we lower rates when it comes to unfortunate by raising rates for other individuals. Achieving affordability through rate design means compromising cost causation to redistribute wealth. It resembles taxation of one class to profit another, using this exception: With taxation, citizens can retire representatives whose votes offend; but with utility service, captive customers are stuck using the rates regulators set. As opposed to shifting costs between customer classes, regulators might redistribute wealth in a different way: by “taxing” shareholders, i.e., reducing shareholder returns underneath the otherwise level that is appropriate. But taxing shareholders is no more the regulator’s domain than is taxing other customers. And it’s really likely unconstitutional: Having invested to serve the public, shareholders expect “just compensation,” undiminished by a forced contribution for affordability. Moving money among citizens is really important to a society that is fair. Poverty is intolerable and charity that is private suffices, so government steps in. But helping the luckless ought to be done by political leaders, who must justify their actions towards the electorate; not by professional regulators, whose focus needs to be industry performance. Affordability of any product—groceries, a Lexus, or utility service—depends on a single’s wealth and income, and on the cost of other products. The poor could better afford utility service if we raised their income and increased their wealth. Or if perhaps we lowered their cost of housing, health care, transportation, or education. However these initiatives are outside regulators’ authority. Which will make regulators accountable for affordability is illogical. Cheap Energy is politics that are cheap Politicians who argue for affordability take the easy road. All efforts that increase costs, while commanding the regulator to make service “affordable,” is low-risk politics, responsibility-avoidance politics, cheap politics to legislate economic development, greenness, reliability, energy independence, and technology leadership. When politicians call for “lower rates,” the electorate feels entitled to get instead of encouraged to contribute. But no family, no congregation, no civil society, thrives if its key verb is “take” in place of “give.” And when lower rates now result in higher costs later, citizens become cynical. Self-doubting, also, as they question their capability to differentiate pander from policy. They are the total results when politicians avoid their responsibility for affordability. “Affordability” Undermines Regulation’s Responsibility Mathematician Carson Chow says he is found the explanation for our obesity epidemic: low food prices. Studying 40 years of data, he spotted both causation and correlation between girth growth and cost declines. He traced these trends to government farm policy shifts (from spending money on non-production to stimulating production that is full and technology boosts (which lowered production costs). The reduced the price, the greater production; the greater amount of production, the greater (fast) food; the greater amount of food, the greater amount of calories available; the greater amount of calories available, the greater amount of calories consumed. See C. Dreifus, “A Mathematical Challenge to Obesity,” The New York Times (May 14, 2012). We have been both over-consuming and under-appreciating: Dr. Chow found that “Americans are wasting food at a progressively increasing rate.” (Fairness point: Chow has his doubters. See Michael Moyer, “The Mathematician’s Obesity Fallacy,” Scientific American (May 15, 2012). So what does food want to do with “affordable” utility service? A regulator’s job is always to regulate—to establish performance standards, then align compensation with compliance. In this equation, affordability just isn’t a variable. To produce service affordable towards the unlucky, the commission will have to lower the purchase price below cost. That leads to overconsumption, to Dr. Chow’s “waste.” This inefficiency hurts everyone. Economic efficiency exists when no further action can create benefits without increasing costs by a lot more than the huge benefits. Conversely, economic inefficiency exists once we forego some action that, if taken, can make someone best off without making anyone worse off. To over-consume, to waste, to act inefficiently, to go out of an advantage up for grabs, makes everyone worse off. Underpricing when you look at the true name of affordability makes someone worse off, unnecessarily. How sensible is that? Actions for Affordability: The Proper Roles for Regulators Unless essential services are affordable, government will never be credible. Regulators, being element of government, need to help. (A commission staff chief told me 25 years back, “Sometimes you have to put away your principles and do what’s right.”) Plus some regulatory statutes explicitly require the regulator to make service “affordable.” (as it is the situation, i will be told, in Vanuatu, an 83-island nation in the South Pacific.) Listed here are 3 ways, in line with economic efficiency, for regulators to handle affordability. Help the reduce usage that is unlucky. Regulators can advocate for affordability by pressing for policies that produce consumption less costly, like improved housing stock, “orbs” that signal high prices, and lighting that is efficient appliances. Analogy: Doctors save lives not just by treating gunshot wounds, but by advocating for gun safety. (American Academy of Pediatrics: “The absence of guns from children’s homes and communities is the most reliable and measure that is effective prevent firearm-related injuries. “) Interpret “affordability” as long-term affordability. Getting prices right and preventing overconsumption, even though it does increase prices into the short run, reduces total costs in the run that is long. Expose the side that is dark of. Rather than follow politicians along the low-price, low-risk, cheap politics path, regulators, like Dr. Chow, can talk facts: about the real costs of utility service, the situation of overconsumption, the error of under-pricing. Along with their credibility rooted in expertise, regulators can pressure legislators to act on affordability directly by enacting policies that are income-raising. Better education, housing, and health care—all these result in higher incomes, in order that citizens are able to afford utility service priced properly.

“Affordable” Utility Service: What is Regulation’s Role? </p> <p>Utilizing the nation’s economy stressed, politicians are pressuring regulators to make utility service “affordable.” This picture has three problems.</p> <h2>Wealth Redistribution is certainly not Regulation’s Department</h2> <p>The regulator identifies prudent costs, computes a revenue requirement to cover those costs, then designs rates to produce the revenue requirement under embedded cost ratemaking. Rate design makes each customer category bear the costs it causes. None among these cost that is steps—prudent, revenue requirement computation, cost allocation—involves affordability. Affordability becomes a factor only if we jigger the numbers—if we lower rates when it comes to unfortunate by raising rates for other individuals. Achieving affordability through rate design means compromising cost causation to redistribute wealth. It resembles taxation of one class to profit another, using this exception: With taxation, citizens can retire representatives whose votes offend; but with utility service, captive customers are stuck using the rates regulators set.</p> <p>As opposed to shifting costs between customer classes, regulators might redistribute wealth in a different way: by “taxing” shareholders, i.e., reducing shareholder returns underneath the otherwise level that is appropriate. But taxing shareholders is no more the regulator’s domain than is taxing other customers. And it’s really likely unconstitutional: Having invested to serve the public, shareholders expect “just compensation,” undiminished by a forced contribution for affordability.</p> <p>Moving money among citizens is really important to a society that is fair. Poverty is intolerable and charity that is private suffices, so government steps in. <a href="http://www.mastogin.com.br/affordable-utility-service-what-is-regulation-s-3/" class="more-link">Leia mais…</a></p> <p>

08/08/2019

simple tips to write paragraphs in essay body

simple tips to write paragraphs in essay body

After the introduction come the body paragraphs. They often use up most of the essay.

Paragraphs contain three sections that are main

  • Point: the topic sentence, which describes the main focus (main point) for the paragraph
  • Illustration: explanations, evidence, and examples that reinforce the main point
  • Explanation: evaluation regarding the illustration or discussion of their significance and connections between this paragraph and
    • the thesis statement
    • nearby paragraphs
  • The acronym PIE (which stands for Point/Illustration/Explanation) might be helpful to remember as a guide for developing well-structured, coherent paragraphs. Leia mais…

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